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Conventional time-planning method and BIM method. Figure Conventional time-planning 3. The The main main construction construction activities activities were were defined defined by by the the qualitative qualitative responses responses of was prepared. The main construction activities were defined by the qualitative responses of experts experts stage stage 2 2 and and related related literature.
Figure 4 demonstrates the adopted WBS for the proposed housing proposed housing system. Figure Work 4. Figure breakdown Work structure breakdown of the structure proposed of the housing proposed paradigm.
Figure 4. Work breakdown structure of the proposed housing paradigm. BIMmodel modelwas of exported the proposed to housingNavisworks Autodesk paradigm was,utilized which for is the BIM compatible applications. The model was exported to Autodesk Navisworks , which is compatible applications. The structural and non-structural elements the model were with Autodesk assigned to theRevit Building Buildingelements elements were site foundations and ending with furnishing and landscaping. Building elements linked with the proposed construction activities, and in the case of changes in the schedule, were the model will be updated automatically and vice versa.
The ordering and timeframe of each activity were scheduled with the guidance of construction data obtained in stage 2, as well as related literature. Figure 5 demonstrates the resulting construction schedule. The ordering and Buildings , 11, timeframe of each activity were scheduled with the guidance of construction10data of 23 obtained in stage 2, as well as related literature. Figure 5. Construction schedule in BIM. The schedule The schedulelinked linkedthetheconstruction activities construction with building activities elements with building of the proposed elements of the proposed housing paradigm and then demonstrated a complete timeframe for pro- housing paradigm and then demonstrated a complete timeframe for the construction the cedure.
The schedule construction procedure. The construction prefabrication system. The simulation illustrates each construction activity its timeframe and the in associated condition, for instance, new construction, existing infrastructure, parallel to its timeframe and the associated condition, for instance, new construction, or demolition. This feature existing enables simulating infrastructure, the construction or demolition.
This featureprocedure enablesvirtually simulatingwithinthethe conditions construction and settings of the context. The simulation significantly assists in procedure virtually within the conditions and settings of the context. The simulation predicting the expected timeframe of assists significantly each activity, thereby accurately in predicting the expected predicting the total timeframe of construction each activity, timeframe.
Additionally, the virtual to understand the context better and select the most proper construction procedure. Thus, simulation enables testing various construction scenarios virtually to understand the the dynamic scheduling and simulation in BIM significantly assisted in understanding context better and select the most proper construction procedure.
Thus, the dynamic the construction timeline and procedure of the proposed housing paradigm in the city of scheduling and simulation in BIM significantly assisted in understanding the construction Mosul. Figure 6 shows a conceptual construction simulation of the proposed solution. Figure 6 On the other side, the conventional planning method in Iraq was tested to quantify shows a conceptual construction simulation of the proposed solution.
The conventional method in Iraq adopts schedule presentations prepared manually in sheets or presented with basic software applications such as Microsoft Excel sheets. The same planning schedule was prepared, this time with the conventional method.
The 2D drawings of the proposed housing unit were utilized along with the construction data provided by the experts in stage 2 to identify construction timeframes for the building elements. A Gantt Chart was produced manually in the same sequence of activities as demonstrated in Figure 5. The results of the conventional method, presented in Figure 7, were studied against a number of measures and compared with the above BIM application.
Table 2 presents the outcome of the study in a technical comparison. Simulating construction timeline with BIM from foundation to completion. On the other side, the conventional planning method in Iraq was tested to quantify the application of BIM in planning the construction procedure.
Table 2 presents the outcome Figure 6. FigureFigure 7. Conventional construction 7. Conventional planning construction method. The conventional method adopts 2D drawings of construction development to make assumptions. These assumptions are typically reflected in a static Gantt Chart. The Gantt Chart lacks the ability to interact with the day-to-day events on-site; therefore, it is exposed to errors of unexpected events.
Additionally, conventional planning lacks the capacity to simulate the planned con- struction procedure virtually. This factor is critical in post-conflict contexts, where in- frastructure conditions are complex.
The simulation is a preventive practice and a test of possible scenarios where obstacles and challenges could be resolved virtually before application on-site. In comparison with the conventional construction method in Iraq, BIM 4-dimensional applications appeared to be dynamic, more functional and more accurate, Figure 7. Conventional with fewer construction planning method. Buildings , 11, 12 of 23 Table 2.
Conventional planning method vs. In Iraq, conventional costs planning is a manual procedure of calculating construction costs, using the quantities of building elements provided in the 2D drawing sets of a project. In BIM, construction costs are identified and analyzed in a dynamic and interrelated procedure. To further elaborate, Table 3 illustrates a technical comparison between the conventional cost planning method in Iraq and BIM method.
Table 3. Construction costs estimation: Conventional method vs. BIM method. First, the model was exported to CostX software to undertake costs estimation. Furthermore, CostX filters building elements into categories such as walls, windows and floors. Additionally, the software divides the building into zones such as the ground floor and first floor and thereby calculates the quantity of each floor in separation from the total calculation.
Figure 7 presents the process of calculating the construction costs of the proposed housing unit, using the BIM application. Although Autodesk Revit provides a built-in set of tools for quantity take-off and cost calculations, CostX provides a comprehensive package of cost estimation tools, including cost monitoring and cost comparison tools, cost analysis tools and a comprehensive cost workbook calculation sheets.
The extracted quantities of the proposed housing paradigm were filtered based on floor level, starting from the foundation level and ending with the roof level. Facade elements and site work activities were filtered and grouped as well.
Then, filtered quantities were inserted into a cost estimation workbook. Accordingly, construction costs cost of materials and building elements provided in stage 2 were inserted against the extracted building items and materials. Finally, construction costs were calculated automatically, using the quantities extracted from the BIM model multiplied by the related construction costs.
The workbook calculated the construction costs for each floor and the total construction costs of the housing unit. Table 4 illustrates the results of estimating the construction costs of the proposed housing paradigm, using BIM application. Table 4. Construction cost estimation using BIM applications. The method depends mainly on the 2D drawings in Iraq was investigated. The method depends mainly on the 2D drawings of a proposed of a proposed project in project in estimating estimating construction construction costs.
The 2D drawings The 2D drawings areare measured measured manually, manually, and and then quantities are calculated and multiplied with estimated costs. The procedure then quantities are calculated and multiplied with estimated costs.
The procedure requires requires manual identification manual identification ofof all all building building elements elements and and then then manual manual measurement measurement of of these these elements, and it is often time-consuming.
To investigate the conventional method in Iraq, elements, and it is often time-consuming. To investigate the conventional method in Iraq, the 2D the 2D drawings drawings of of the the proposed proposed housing housing unit unit were were studied, studied, using using Autodesk Autodesk AutoCAD AutoCAD for the for the manual manual measurement measurement of of building building elements, elements, as as presented presented inin Figure Figure 8.
Manual Figure 8. Manual Quantity Quantity Estimation Estimation Method Method conventional conventional cost cost estimation estimation procedure.
The manual procedure could not identify, recognize or filter building elements, and therefore it required manual identification and manipulation. Furthermore, hidden elements such as slab structure, door lintels and finishing layers could not be recognized.
Additionally, the process is static. Furthermore, hidden ele- ments such as slab structure, door lintels and finishing layers could not be recognized. In the case of any change, quantities need to be rectified manually. Table 5 presents the results of the manual procedure. Table 5. Construction cost estimation using Conventional Method in Iraq. The manual procedure was more likely to miscalculate the building elements due to the nature of the manual measurement procedure.
Addition- ally, the process was time-consuming and complicated when it came to calculating specific elements such as the recycled stone finishing on the main elevation.
Furthermore, the manual cost model was static and non-responsive to changes. In the case of any change, calculations should be rechecked and rectified to address the changes. In a post-conflict context, especially in Mosul city, cost planning and cost monitoring are critical elements for a successful post-conflict reconstruction process, as the city suffers from a set of challenging infrastructural conditions due to the consequences of the war that make any cost planning attempt quite complex.
The nature and complexity of the context require a set of interactive, dynamic and accurate tools for costs estimation, analysis and monitoring.
According to the features of the conventional method in Iraq, the method seemed to be limited to conceptual costs estimation only, slow, and unreliable. To further investigate the validity of 5D BIM application in planning the post-conflict reconstruction of Mosul city, a set of key measures in post-conflict contexts were studied.
Those measures were adopted to study the above BIM application results, as well as the conventional costs estimation results, as demonstrated in Table 6. Table 6. Cost planning in post-conflict contexts: conventional method vs. The 6D BIM application will investigate the expected performance of the proposed housing paradigm within the geographical settings of Mosul city.
The difficulty of carrying out a performance analysis in post- conflict contexts is often underestimated, as the literature indicates. In Iraq, performance analysis is yet not considered in planning construction projects generally. Conventional construction planning in Iraq is limited to cost and time estimations.
Having the complex challenge of rebuilding the city of Mosul, sustainability aspects are critical in planning the reconstruction solutions. BIM applications enable studying the sustainability dimension of any construction enterprise using related BIM software. In this section, the BIM model of the proposed housing unit was tested in two stages. In stage 1, the suggested building specifications obtained in stage 2 of the methodology qualitative interviews were adopted. Building specifications were assigned to the BIM model using the built-in material library in Autodesk Revit.
The library defines the thermal and physical properties of building materials based on its standard technical specifications. In stage 2, the same procedure was adopted but using building specifications of a typical housing unit in Mosul city, where the standard building specifications were obtained from related experts in stage 2 of the methodology qualitative interviews.
To start the 6D BIM application, U-values of building elements were identified for both the proposed unit and the typical housing unit. To start the 6D BIM application, U- 17 of 23 values of building elements were identified for both the proposed unit and the typical housing unit.
The U-value of each building material was calculated automatically in Autodesk Revit, depending on the technical specification of each material. Table 7 depending illustrates onbuilding the the technical specification elements of each and technical material. Table specifications 7 illustrates of the the building proposed unit and the elements typical and technical housing unit.
Table 7. Table Building Specifications: 7. Standard Standard Housing Housing Unit. This Thismodel modelanalyses analysesthetheproperties propertiesofofeach eachbuilding buildingelement elementandandthen thentests teststhe the expected expectedoperational operationalbehavior behaviorof ofeach eachunit unitbased basedon onthe thedefined definedproperties propertiesand andaccording according to tothe theclimatic climaticconditions conditionsand and geographical geographicallocation locationofof Mosul Mosul city city [68,69].
The The analytical analytical models modelsof ofthe thetwo twounits unitswere wereuploaded uploadedto toAutodesk AutodeskGreen Green Building Building Studio Studio to to undertake undertake the the performance analysis.
Figure 9 demonstrates a sample of an analytical model before performance analysis. Figure 9 demonstrates a sample of an analytical model before uploading uploadingititto toGreen GreenBuilding BuildingStudio. Figure Figure9. In Green Building In Green BuildingStudio, Studio, the the weather weather profileprofile of Mosulof city Mosul was city was identified, identified, depending depending on the geographical on the geographical location of location the city.
Theofdatabase of GreenStudio Green Building Building Studio conducted conducted the performance analysis for each model, depending on the properties the performance analysis for each model, depending on the properties of each model and of each in model and in accordance with the geographical settings of Mosul city. The accordance with the geographical settings of Mosul city. The 6D BIM application analyzed 6D BIM the expected operational behavior of each model, following the climatic conditions and the geographical settings of Mosul city [68,69].
Figures 10 and 11 report the results of the 6D BIM application for both the proposed housing unit and the typical unit within the settings of Mosul city. Figure Figure Figure Standard Figure The 6D performance. The conventional housing housing standards. The applicationThe 6D BIM assisted 6D BIM application in providing application assisted a better assisted in providing providingofaa the understanding in better ex- better pected operational behavior of the proposed solutions and therefore a better understanding of the sustainability aspect of different solutions.
The 6D BIM application demonstrated a preliminary realization of the expected operational behavior of different construction solutions in the city of Mosul.
The results of the 6D BIM could enhance planning decisions in regards to the aspects of sustainability and expected building performance. Therefore, the 6D BIM application provides a potential decision-making assessment tool that could assist in selecting more sustainable solutions in the long term when planning post-conflict reconstruction solutions.
This BIM dimension functions as the manual of operation and maintenance practices. This includes regular maintenance practices, repair and restoration practices and deconstruction manual [52,70,71]. In this study, the deconstruction theme will be investigated for the reasons: first, the deconstruction theme is critical in post-conflict con- texts as the proposed housing solutions might be temporary and functions for a certain timeframe; therefore, investigating the deconstruction of these units is essential in such contexts.
Second, operation and maintenance data cannot be tested in this stage as the housing unit in this study is a proposal only. Last, the scope of this study is limited to the potential of BIM applications in planning post-conflict reconstruction.
Building elements were fragmented into structural and non- structural parts, using the layering system in Autodesk Revit. As per the demonstrations of the investigation, the prefabrication system depends mainly on manufactured building elements that are installed and assembled on-site, where deconstructing such a building system depends mainly on de-attaching the assembled elements into individual parts.
As the 7D demonstrations have presented, the nature of the system enables maintaining the ngs , 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW physical condition of the building elements after deconstruction and reduces 21 of 25 wastes, time and complexity compared to conventional construction systems.
Figure 12 demonstrates the 7D BIM application in this study. The 7D BIM,The 7D BIM, in this study,inpresented this study,a presented conceptualademonstration conceptual demonstration of the possible of the possible deconstructiondeconstruction theme in the theme case ofin the the case of proposal housing the housing proposal of Mosul city.
This conceptual conceptual presentation presentation provided a provided a preliminary preliminary understanding understanding of the deconstruction of the deconstruction process, process, in in post- post-conflict contexts, where construction might be temporary to resolve a standing issue and, therefore, the theme of deconstruction is critical to study.
Findings and Discussion This study investigated the implementation of BIM in the reconstruction of post- conflict contexts, particularly the reconstruction of Mosul city. The study implemented a multi-dimensional application of BIM on a proposed housing paradigm. This study pro- vided a practical insight of the planning and management of post-conflict reconstruction, using BIM applications.
This was through investigating the potential of those applica- tions on a proposed reconstruction approach, and in comparison with the conventional reconstruction planning methods in Iraq. The overall results demonstrated the signifi- cance of BIM applications when implemented in post-conflict resolution, particularly in developing countries.
The novelty of this study lies in the adoption of an innovative and integrated approach for planning and managing post-conflict reconstruction in developing countries, particu- larly the city of Mosul. There is limited, if any, attempts in the literature to transfer and implement BIM applications for post-conflict contexts, particularly in developing coun- tries such as Iraq.
This study demonstrated the potential of implementing BIM in these complex contexts and illustrated the applications of BIM in such contexts. The advantages of the multi-dimensional BIM applications, discussed in this study, present a significant opportunity for achieving more reliable, accurate and practical reconstruction solutions, especially in developing countries where conventional methods are basic, inefficient and limited.
Due to the complex situation in the city of Mosul, the implementation of BIM ap- plications could prevent major reconstruction failures and assist in functional and reliable rebuilding process. This study contributes to the existing literature on the potential of adopting BIM applications against conventional construction methods, in post-conflict contexts.
More specifically, it provides an evidence-based case study on the significance of utilizing BIM in developing countries, particularly in post-conflict cities that face various challenges within construction industry where demand for innovative, effective and reliable approaches is even more present. The sequential applications of BIM could be applied in similar contexts as transferable approach for housing development specifically and also for construction industry in general.
Hence, this study presents a significant and valuable contribution to both the existing research in this area and to the practitioners in the construction industry. Conclusions and Further Research Post-conflict reconstruction is a challenging theme for the AEC industry, urban plan- ners, decision makers and other stakeholders, especially in developing countries.
The need for reliable and practical planning approaches is becoming very critical in these complex contexts. This study investigated the potential of implementing BIM for the reconstruction of post-conflict contexts, particularly the city of Mosul. The applications assisted in better understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed paradigm within the context of Mosul city, and in comparison with conventional construction methods.
BIM applications have been shown to be more practical at predicating the practicality of a possible reconstruction solution and preventing unexpected construction failures. The proper adoption of BIM could significantly reduce risks related to improper planning and enhance the certainty and functionality of the proposed solutions. Author Contributions: Conceptualization, Z. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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